Rules of legalemployment for migrants in Poland

< Wróć

Rules of legalemployment for migrants in Poland

A foreigner can legally work in Poland under several conditions. First of Rules of legal employment for migrants in Poland

A foreigner can legally work in Poland under several conditions.

First of all:

– their stay in Poland must be legal (e.g. based on a residence card, or visa);

– they must be entitled to work in Poland (e.g. have a work permit).

Work in Poland is legal only if the foreigner’s stay is legal. Loss of the right to legal residence or work permit means losing the right to work.

Possibility to workbased on the Special Act (Specustawa) – conditions for stay (valid from 23.03.2022):

A foreigner whose stay is considered legal based on Article 2 para. 1 of the Special Act, which states that if a citizen of Ukraine legally entered the territory of the Republic of Poland in the period from February 24, 2022, to the date specified in the forthcoming regulations and declares their intention to remain in Poland, their stay shall be considered legal for 18 months counting from February 24, 2022. Ukrainian citizens who were legally residing in the territory of the Republic of Poland (e.g. visa, visa-free travel) by the begging of the war also have their legal stay prolonged.

The employment procedure was simplified for people covered by the Special Act – in this respect, it is sufficient to notify the employment office within 14 days from the date of taking up work by a Ukrainian citizen.

– Certain categories of people eligible for temporary protection but not covered by the Special Act have the right to stay and work in Poland for 12 months without obtaining a work permit or registering a statement or notification to the District Labour Office.

– For people who are not covered by the Special Act or temporary protection, and who applied for international protection are not allowed work in Poland for the first 6 months of this procedure.

A declaration on entrustingwork to a foreigner

Citizens of 6 countries – Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia, and Moldova, benefit from facilitated access to the Polish labour market, based on a declaration. It is registered by the District Labour Office.

Currently, for 24 months, citizens of these countries can work without obtaining a work permit, provided that they have a written statement of the entity entrusting work registered in the competent poviat employment office and a written contract.

A declaration is registered in about 7 working days.

The employer is obliged to inform the poviat labour office about whether the foreigner took up work or not within 7 days from the date of the beginning indicated in the statement.

The majority of poviat labour offices require the submission of a statement in electronic form and do not accept paper applications.


A – applies to a foreigner working in Poland based on a contract with an entity whose seat or place of residence, or a branch, plant or another form of organized activity is located on the territory of the Republic of Poland

B – applies to a foreigner performing work that is: – a function on the management board of a legal person entered in the register of entrepreneurs or a capital company in the organization – managing a limited partnership or limited joint-stock partnership as a general partner, – or in connection with granting them a procuration for a period exceeding 6 months in total during the next 12 months

C – applies to a foreigner who performs work for a foreign employer and is posted to a branch or establishment of a foreign entity or an entity related to a foreign employer on the territory of the Republic of Poland for a period exceeding 30 days in a calendar year of Laws from 2016, item 2

D – a foreigner who is delegated to Poland to provide temporary and occasional services (export services) for a foreign employer who does not have a branch, establishment or another form of organized activity in Poland

E – applies to a foreigner who performs work for a foreign employer and is posted to the territory of the Republic of Poland for a period exceeding 30 days within the next 6 months for a purpose other than that indicated in types B, C, D permits.

Type A Permit – is the most frequently issued type of permit. Before applying for a type A permit, one should know whether there is a need to obtain the so-called information of the local government (starosta) on the local labour market (“labour market test” – test rynku pracy). The information of the starosta may also be required in applying for a temporary residence and work permit.

The S-type permit allows for employing a foreigner to work in selected sectors of the economy (considered to be seasonal, e.g. tourism). The application for a seasonal work permit is submitted to the poviat labour office proper for the seat or place of residence of the employer.

The waiting period is about 1 – 3 months. The employer who intends to employ a foreigner is a party to the procedure for granting a work permit. The employer applies. It is possible to apply electronically.

– In the case of a foreigner who is to work in a regulated profession, in addition to obtaining a work permit, must meet additional requirements, on which the possibility of performing a regulated profession or activity depends.

Temporaryresidence and workpermit (so-called uniform) isissued by VoivodshipOffices

Obtaining this permit requires the personal appearance of the foreigner to submit fingerprints in the voivodship office.

– Waiting period is about 6 – 12 months.

– Competent authority: Voivodship Office proper for the place of residence of a foreigner in Poland.

– In contrast to the work permit, in the case of a uniform permit, it is the foreigner who is a party to the work permit procedure and who submits the application. Official correspondence is sent directly to the foreigner.

The single permit, as well as the work permit, must specify the employer and the position.

There are temporary residence permits that allow working without a permit, such as a temporary residence permit for a family member (spouse) of a Polish citizen or having the status of a university graduate.

Special solutionsworkbased on the so-called Special Act

Based on the Act of 12 March 2022 on assistance to citizens of Ukraine in connection with the armed conflict in the territory of this country (Journal of Laws of 2022, item 583) Ukrainian citizens who are legally residing on the territory of Poland have special entitlements in the scope of the right to work in Poland.

This entitlement applies to both Ukrainian citizens who have entered Poland since 24 February 2022 and whose stay is legal under a particular statute, as well as Ukrainian citizens legally residing in the territory of the Republic of Poland on a different basis (e.g. visa, visa-free travel).

The employer is obliged to notify the District Labour Office within 14 days from the date of taking up work by a foreigner. The notification shall be sent to the office proper to the seat/place of residence of the entity entrusting work.

Notification of entrusting work to a Ukrainian citizen should be made electronically (via the portal, and the notification must include:

– information about the entity entrusting work – the employer,

– basic data of the foreigner,

– the type of the contract

– Position/type of work

– the place of work.

If these conditions aren’t met, the Ukrainian citizen can’t work without a work permit.

Following the provisions of Article 39 of the Special Act, also in the case of granting a temporary residence permit to a Ukrainian citizen based on this special act, his work will be legal without the need to have a work permit.

Otheropportunities to workwithoutpermission

In some cases, it will also be possible to work without having to obtain a declaration or permit, on general terms.

Permission to work in Poland is not required, inter alia, if the foreigner: is an EU/EEA/Switzerland citizen or a member of the family (spouse as well as dependent initial and descendant or his spouse up to the age of 21 or dependent on him),

– is a person specified in the Regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 21 April 2015 – e.g. when a foreigner is a graduate of Polish upper secondary schools, full-time higher education or full-time PhD studies at Polish universities,

– has the right of permanent residence based on a permanent residence permit issued in Poland or a residence permit for an EU long-term resident,

– has a residence permit for humanitarian reasons or a permit for a tolerated stay in the Republic of Poland,

– is the spouse of a Polish citizen holding a temporary residence permit in the territory of the Republic of Poland granted in connection with the marriage,

– has specific residence permits, e.g. a temporary residence permit to join the family, to study in wells, but this applies only to full-time or PhD studies,

– has a valid Pole’s Card,

– has a valid visa with the annotation “Poland. Business Harbour”.

Other exceptions are regulated, in, e.g.:

– the Act on Employment Promotion and Labour Market Institutions (art.87).

– the implementing regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of 21 April 2015 on cases in which entrusting work to a foreigner on the territory of the Republic of Poland is permissible without obtaining a work permit (Journal of Laws 2018.2273).

Information for entitiesemployingUkrainiancitizens (obligations of the employer)

First of all, it is necessary to confirm the citizenship of the foreigner, verify whether they have permits issued in Poland or another European Union country and determine whether they meet the conditions for working without a permit.

Before entrusting work, it is the employer’s responsibility to check whether the foreigner has a valid document entitling them to stay in Poland, make a copy of this document and keep it for the entire period of employment of the foreigner (a document entitling to stay on the territory of Poland may be a residence permit or a valid visa).

The employer must check if the foreigner’s residence title entitles them to work in Poland (type of visa – e.g. tourist visa).

The employer must obtain an appropriate permit, register a statement, or notify the Labor Office.

The employer is obliged to sign the contract with the foreigner (written) and before signing the contract the employer must deliver a translation into a language understandable to the foreigner. Other documents, such as those concerning health and safety or remuneration regulations, should also be translated.

The contract with the foreigner must take into account the working conditions contained in the declaration, work permit or uniform permit.

The foreigner should receive one copy of the work permit from the employer.

The entity entrusting work should inform the foreigner about actions in the process of legalization of their employment.

As for any other employee, the employer has the same tax (settlement of income tax advances) and insurance obligations and must meet the minimum wage requirement and all the obligations arising from labour law.

Remuneration of the foreigner

Monthly remuneration cannot be lower than the minimum remuneration for work (in 2022, it is PLN 3010.00 gross).

Remuneration offered to the foreigner must not be lower than the remuneration of employees performing similar work or in a comparable position.

Employment contract

– we apply the provisions of the Labour Code (types of contracts, duration of the contract, termination);

– the regulations do not indicate the period for which the employment contract with the foreigner should be signed;

– the duration of the contract may be longer than the declaration or work permit.